FEATURES OF THE SANSKRIT GRAMMAR: THE CASES
One of the reasons that make the language of Sanskrit to stand apart from all other language is the fact Sanskrit is very sophisticated, unambiguous and precise in its approach in forming words and portraying meaning to the audience. However, there are still views and beliefs that some of the verses of the language are ambiguous and does not portray any single meaning.
Well, in some way or the other it is true; it does not convey a single idea or meaning. Then how it is unambiguous? Well, the answer is that such verses and sentences portray exactly what the idea is. If the idea demands subjectivity of the audience then it portrays a subjective theme. For ambiguity is does not refer to the inability to understand the topic but having more than one possible meaning.
But how is this possible to convey multiple meanings and that too in an economical way. Here is where grammar plays an important part in the Sanskrit language. Sanskrit, unlike other languages, does not distinguish between the grammar and semantics, instead, it considers both of them the same. One of the important parts of Sanskrit grammar is, ‘cases’ or ‘विभक्ती’.

There are total 8 cases in the Sanskrit language, they are as follows;
1. Nominative case,  2. Accusative,  3. Instrumental,  4. Dative,  5. Ablative,
6. Genitive, 7. Locative, and 8. Vocative

They do the job of directing a meaning of the word towards the object. Basically, cases tell us everything about the object. Let us take a glimpse of what these cases denote;

Cases Meaning
Nominative (case1) Denotes what the subject is doing; ‘man eats’
Accusative (case 2) Noun here takes place of the subject; ‘they eat man’
Instrumental (case3) The noun, in this case, takes place noun acts as an instrument of the verb. ‘it is grown by them’
Dative     (case4) In this case, the noun takes place of the indirect object, ‘it was done by man’
Ablative (case5) In this case, the noun refers to the origin of the instrument, ‘from man the civilization began’
Genitive (case6) In this case, noun gives a sense of belonging, ‘the behavior of animal’
Locative (case7) In this case, noun gives an idea of location, ‘courage lives inside us’
Vocative (case8) This case, suggests calling or invocation, ‘hey Rama’, ‘oh Rama’

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